Wednesday, July 31, 2019


Ijarah Ijarah means lease, rent or wage. Generally, Ijarah concept means selling benefit or use or service for a fixed price or wage. Under this concept, the Bank makes available to the customer the use of service of assets / equipments such as plant, office automation, motor vehicle for a fixed period and price. Advantages Of Ijarah The following are the advantages of Ijarah to lessee: 1)Ijarah conserves capital as it may provide 100% financing. 2)Ijarah enables the Lessee to have the use of the equipment on payment of the first rental.This is important since it is the use (and not ownership)of the equipment that generates income. 3)Ijarah arrangements are flexible because the terms and rental provision may be tailored to suit the needs of the Lessee. Therefore, it aids corporate planning and budgeting. 4)Ijarah is not borrowing and is therefore not required to be disclosed as a liability in the Balance Sheet of the Lessee. Being an â€Å"off balance sheet† financing, it is n ot included in the computation of gearing ratios imposed by bankers.The borrowing capacity of the Lessee is therefore not impaired when leasing is resorted to as a mean of financing. 5)All payments of rentals are treated as payment of operating expenses and are therefore, fully tax-deductible. Leasing therefore offers tax-advantages to profit making concerns. 6)There are many types of equipment, which becomes obsolete before the end of its actual economic life. This is particularly true in high technology equipment like computers.Thus the risk is passed onto the Lessor who will undoubtedly charge a premium into the lease rate to compensate for the risk. A Lessee may be willing to pay the said premium as an insurance against obsolescence. 7)If the equipment used is for a relatively short period of time, it may be more profitable to lease than to buy. 8)If the equipment is used for a short duration and the equipment has a very poor second hand value (resale value), leasing would be th e best method for acquisition

Choose a Career

Passion or Money Does money make people incentive toward their career or job selection? The pressure of the dream life in which everything is achieved can drive people to select a carrier or a job that isn’t their favorite. Robert Sullivan in How to Choose a career that will not get you rich discusses how society had driven people to choose something that they don’t love by saying, â€Å"These days, a good education is a must if you planning on working your entire life and ending up with little or nothing†(Sullivan 407) .A good career is consider on how much that person will earn, that is why sometimes students aren’t motivate since what they love isn’t going to pay them as good as other careers. â€Å"How to Choose a Career That Will Not Get You Rich No Matter What Anyone Tells You† by Robert Sullivan argue that people should choose majors or jobs depending on what they are really interested in. Sullivan expresses his opinion with a sarcasti c humor to poke fun of the attitude of society by given examples of mediaeval literature, wildlife biologist, and traditional music.Sullivan states that medieval literature is â€Å" Wonderful area of essentially not-for-profit study, and, indeed , a study of just medieval poetry will only reinforce the improbability of retiring on what you will earn, even though you may see the world as more beautiful, and , through the sight of such beauty, you will be stock-poor but soul-enhance† (Sullivan 408). In other words if a person decide to become a poetry nothing touchable will be earn however passion and love will be always present. What happens is that students start to study in career that assures them money without thinking if that is going to make them happy.If a person goes to Nurse School just because the high salary rate but they don’t like it is not worth it. There must be a balance between what is loved and what will pay the bills. Further, Sullivan states that â €Å"the one universal important thing to keep in mind when choosing a career that will not be making you loaded is to choose a field assured of not getting rich† (Sullivan 411). Doing what is loved is more important than doing something hated. Society needs to understand this balance and let people to choose something they want to do.In the reading â€Å"Traditional Music â€Å" is used to shown how personal interest like becoming a pianist is opposite of someone choosing a career that statistics indicate will manage to keep him or her alive, career such as health care, education and engineering. In this society economy health is important to survive and some careers are unsafe. Work Cited Sullivan, Robert. â€Å"â€Å"How to Choose a Career That Will Not Get You Rich No Matter What Anyone Tells You†, James S. Acting Out Culture, Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s,2011. 300-307. Print.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Ace Manufacturing Essay

Of all the topics in this course, many students find Lesson 4 to be the most frustrating. I think this may be due in part to an apparent contradiction: there are lots of numbers and equations to work with, but surprisingly little certainty in our conclusions. I share your frustrations at times. Fortunately, these cases are the only â€Å"strictly financial† case studies †¦ the only ones where number crunching is an end unto itself. However, basic financial analysis will always be an important part of our toolkit for making pricing decisions. The document which follows contains the â€Å"answers† to these two case study assignments: Ace Manufacturing and Healthy Spring Water. Despite the financial emphasis, they are similar to the previous cases insofar as they’re intentionally open-ended and somewhat vague to encourage you to draw out all of the contingencies and factors that need to be considered. They’re intended to stimulate thinking. If you feel a bit frustrated by that, it probably means they’re working. Only after you’ve identified the issues and concepts that are relevant to the questions can you start to focus your efforts on how to solve the problem. This is my answer key (of sorts) for the two assigned cases. I know  how much many of you struggled with this case and your efforts were not in vain. Having had to slog through all of the confounding complexities of financial analysis is necessary to fully prepared you for what may lie ahead in your professional endeavors. Ace Manufacturing 1. What is the relevant unit cost for making this pricing decision? There are two primary alternatives that you might consider when approaching this question. Those of you who have this type of responsibility in a â€Å"real world† context are likely to suggest that fixed costs and G&A costs should be allocated equally/proportionately across the two products. At the opposite extreme, you might have chosen to argue that the additional 30,000 units should only be required to cover the incremental costs incurred †¦ implying a relevant unit cost of $7.50. Is one of these approaches â€Å"better† or â€Å"more correct† than the other? Is one of them more realistic? More conservative? Is one approach more conventional †¦ and does being â€Å"conventional† mean it is correct? Arguing persuasively for either position †¦ or a compromise view in between the two †¦ has some merit. And †¦ I’ll certainly try to be fair in evaluating your work, but I have a bias toward being both conservative and coldly realistic. Here’s my thinking †¦ building the units requires using designs that cost money to build and tooling that the company borrowed money to purchase. These are direct fixed costs. They also require maintenance of the plant which is currently being covered by the first 150,000 units. Since incurring these costs is necessary to producing the additional 30,000 units, why shouldn’t the additional 30,000 units be required to cover a fair share of the costs? That leaves the $60,000 increase in General and Administrative Costs associated with the new production †¦ which I would treat in the same way as the increases in direct fixed costs. Does all of this â€Å"squabbling† about how and where to allocate costs make a difference? It makes a big difference in evaluating the profitability of pursuing this new account. 2. Is this business sufficiently profitable to make bidding worthwhile? Although there can be a few subtle variations on this analysis, here’s the way that the two alternative approaches to allocating costs break down: One approach (Plan A) yields a profitable outcome †¦ $2.50 per incremental unit. The other, a loss of $1.25 per incremental unit. When you look at the total dollars columns, however †¦ either scheme generates the same level of profitability – a net gain of $75,000. Confused? The notion of the incremental units covering their â€Å"fair share† of fixed costs shows a net loss resulting from this additional business, but you can’t argue with the total dollars outcome. While the additional units don’t cover their â€Å"fair share† of costs, they contribute $75,000 toward these costs – costs that would not have been covered by the original 150,000 units. In this situation, the concepts of fairness and conventional practice could obscure a profitable opportunity. Based on the financial analysis alone, the company should definitely take the new business. What other considerations are relevant? Well †¦ is there a potential downside in terms of â€Å"indirect† cannibalization and price erosion? There’s always the Walmart effect to worry about †¦ that if you sell an â€Å"incremental volume† of goods at a discount through an alternative channel, buyers may switch channels – and 10,000 units sold at discount will cannibalize 10,000 units in sales at higher margins. Another concern is that prospective buyers will use the lower-priced â€Å"inferior† product as leverage in negotiating the price of the better product. Even slight price reductions in the 150,000 of regular sales would wipe out any profitability gains from additional sales of the inferior product. A simple case study †¦ and two short questions. But appearances can be deceiving. For grading purposes, I’m looking for a thoughtful analysis of the situation †¦ a recognition that there’s more here than crunching a few numbers. A â€Å"bad answer† would be one that rejects the possibility of pursuing this account without recognizing that it is a profitable venture from a strictly financial perspective.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Managers learn better through experience. Theory has nothing to offer Essay - 1

Managers learn better through experience. Theory has nothing to offer - Essay Example Owing to the dynamic nature of the current business environment, learning through experience has been widely used as the mode of leaning in the field of management (Rigolosi, 2013:1). Learning through experience has become an important has become an important aspect in management to enable them to meet the challenges posed by the business conditions in the 21st century. The statement ‘Managers learn better through experience. Theory has nothing to offer.’ is true in the modern times in the business world. This is owing to the fact that managing an entity in the modern times poses unique challenges to mangers globally. Managers have to experience some challenges resulting from globalisation and other forces in the market such as changing consumer needs and increased competitiveness. On the other hand, it has been observed that theory has a lot to offer in the management field, as there are some management theories that can be applied to solve problems facing managers in t he modern world. This means that theory cannot be fully left out in the field of management. Instead, it should be complemented with the experience learnt by managers in their line of work. In order to study the reasons as to as to why learning through experience is the best form of learning for managers this paper gives a discussion of the experiential learning theory and its practical application. To start with, experiential learning is defined as learning through experience. The theory of experiential learning is refers to the process of learning through experience and theorists such as Kurt Lewin and Dewey made important contributions to the theory (Border, 2007:7). The theory refers to learning as the process where knowledge is generated through experience. In other words, knowledge comes from the events experienced on a daily basis. Learning through Experience Mangers can learn a lot from observing the trends and activities in the business world. According to the theory, indiv iduals learn so much from observing and listening to the opinions of other people. This sparks their interest and enables them to discover and learn new concepts. David Kolb’s learning theory identified stated different learning styles that are founded on a four stage learning process. The four stages are important in the process of mangers learning through experience. There is the concrete experience that is gained through feeling and putting in practice what is leant (Janet, 2006:45). If managers feel that making a certain move will benefit the company, they learn through taking such decisions. The second step is reflective observation where the managers can learn through observation and critically analyse the outcome. The third step is abstract conceptualisation that entails assessment of the conceptual understanding. The last step is active experimentation and finding solutions to problems. This theory states that learning is based on immediate experience that acts as the basis of our reflections and observations. These observations help managers to plan and come up with new implications and are assessed to learn new concepts and experiences. All the stages discussed above are highly important to the learning process by managers. The entire process of experience, planning, reflection and

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Old Guard vs. Avant-Garde Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Old Guard vs. Avant-Garde - Essay Example Well, until today, there has been an increasing number of different versions of descriptions on what music is and what it is not. However, there has not been a single universally acknowledged definition of music as it is a wide realm of art that is hard to limit within a sentence to encapsulate everything that it is. Well, to be able to understand music in its entirety, it is best to revisit its history. First of all, to give you the most general definition of music, it is an artistic form of auditory communication that incorporates instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner. Another great description of music would be that â€Å"it is any pleasing and harmonious sound created by singers or musical instruments† (Espie, n. d.). These descriptions came about during the Medieval Ages where musical notation, such as monophony and polyphony, were developed. Monophony is characterized by a music that only consists of one melodic line without accompaniment and where the beauty of the chant relied on its melody. On the other hand, polyphony is a type of music created by two or more melodic lines which are heard simultaneously ("History of Music", n. d). Music in the Medieval Ages was considered the â€Å"old-guard† music because at that time people were not open to welcoming other ideas and means of creating music outside of these standard definitions stated above. Avant-garde music on the other hand, is basically the merging of all the elements and genres of music, such as the Medieval, Classical, and Romantic etc. It strongly reflects the modernist style of art music where the irregularity of melody or consistent tune and the rejection of tonality are being embraced. John Cage is an artist and composer being well known for this. He promoted the use of almost anything that could produce sound as one of the instruments to create music and at the same time considered the sound of nature and the most random things as part of his music . Two of his popular works are the â€Å"Dream† and â€Å"Souvenir†. John Cage’s â€Å"Dream† for me is a bright illustration of an â€Å"avant-garde† work. This is because of the fact that there is no consistent melody that reflects monophony and polyphony. Another point worth of noting would be the pauses or silence, which is the element that is imminent in the â€Å"Dream† and would never be considered as music per se within the context of â€Å"Old guard† era. Aside from that, one would be able to notice the altering of tonality from high to low and from long stretches of pitches to a sudden halt. Medieval Age music is totally the opposite to that of modern or avant-garde era being distinct by its repetition of melody and tones, which is something you would not be able to hear in the â€Å"Dream†. Every deployed tone is a new phase of music that reflects randomness and an expression of real life (Eidt, n. d.). A lot of peop le regard John Cage’s â€Å"Dream† as something that is composed of merely an expression of random outcome of events, which is an element that is not recognized within the â€Å"old-guard† technique. Mainly the piano was used to create this music and what makes it special is that the notes being hit are not based on a certain standard of tonality instead they are based on the musician’s score. This allows this work of his to uncover a deeper mystery and beauty as it is not repetitious and predictability of the piece is not there. Thus, its element of silence which is distinct feature of the â€Å"Dream† contributes to something new in the music sphere and causes a lot of aspiring musicians to create the same mystery and at the same time producing a story that would reflect the reality of change in everyday life. Although the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Revenge in the Contemporary Society Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Revenge in the Contemporary Society - Assignment Example Shakespeare presents two pieces of artwork of Titus and Titus Andronicus who appears as a sordid tale of bloodthirsty revenge in political turmoil. The pieces of work present a turbulent scenario characterized by massive blood flows and unthinkable brutality. In the process of affecting the revenge, countless murders are reported, rape and terrible actions of fierce mutilation. Generally, the characters in both pieces of work of Titus Andronicus are the Romans and the vital captives that found their way to the Roman Empire after the ten-year war with the Goths. This integrated the Goth’s queen, Tamara, and her family members who were the painful bearers of the cold brutal murders, hence, creating the theme of revenge (Shakespeare 232). Shakespeare presents this theme as a plot in one of his earlier works which do not appear to be popular as the pieces of work are viewed as excessively violent which, in my opinion, appear to be the best setting for the theme. The story is quite powerful and juicy as moving though is not that dynamic as one may wish a player to be. Titus Andronicus is a Roman general, who is in charge of a leadership position in the army that fights the Goths and defeats them in cruel and bloody war. Before the war is finished Titus wants to execute the son of the queen of Goths, Tamara, who pleads for the mercy for her son as it is normally said that the pain of childbirth should be enquired from the mother. Titus though defies the pleas of the mother and goes ahead to kill Tamara’s son anyway (Shakespeare 157). After the bloody killing of Tamara’s sons by Titus, the queen swears to revenge on Titus’ kingdom and initiates a total bloodbath.  

Friday, July 26, 2019

Holocaust Heroes Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Holocaust Heroes - Research Paper Example The holocaust The holocaust was an ultimate occurrence of accumulated inter racial conflict that developed from the German’s perception that they were â€Å"racially superior† as compared to the Jews and other races. As a result, the Germans believed that other races did not deserve the right to life. This led to pre-holocaust discrimination of the other races by the Nazi regime and the ultimate execution. The Germans, following their influence in the Second World War that put many territories across Europe under Hitler’s control, took advantage of their authority to eliminate the Jews. Though the Jews previously submitted to oppression from the Nazis, the native Germans still considered them as enemies and a threat. Consequently, â€Å"nearly two out of every three Jews† were killed in the German’s move to eliminate the Jews. The German regime â€Å"deported millions of Jews† from Germany and their captured territories to designated location s at which the Jews were killed (Ushmm, p. 1). Though there were individual efforts against the Nazi’s forces to clear off the Jews, the ultimate end of the Holocaust was the defeat of the Germans in the world war in the year 1945 when the Germans â€Å"forces surrendered unconditionally† (Ushmm, p. 1). ... He for instance illustrates of a woman who took him together with his â€Å"brother to a train station† (Drucker, n.p.). This experience illustrates a heroic move by the woman who disregarded racial differences to facilitate safety of the vulnerable children at the time. Her heroic state is also identified by the brave move that she took with respect to taking risks of taking Drucker and his brother to the station. This is because she dared being treated as a traitor by the Nazis forces that could lead to her execution. Similarly, she could be mistaken for a Jew following her association with them to become a victim of the holocaust. Druker also explains that his parents’ â€Å"lives were saved by the gentile farmers of the town† (Drucker, n.p.). This exhibits compassion at both individual and communal level. To denounce the racism and on the contrary protect a Jew amidst the racial and national controversy during the war was heroic. Restraining from betraying th e individuals, who saved Drucker’s parents, to the forces identifies the level of compassion that the town people had. As Drucker presents the experience, the whole town undertook the initiative to protect Jews from Nazi’s wrath. Similarly, Meyer, a survivor of the holocaust, talks of a â€Å"good man by the name Jeff† (Mayer, n.p). Jeff was also daring to try to rescue Jews from the military offensive. His bravery and compassion that defied racism defines his heroic attitude (Mayer, n.d.). Another heroic move to save Jews from the military offensive was done by Oscar Schindler who succeeded in rescuing more than 1000 Jews. As reported by the Holocaust, Oscar made personal sacrifices to ensure protection of the Jews from the forces.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Newdow case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Newdow case - Essay Example Since conservatives are likely to support the religious aspect then they are more likely to oppose changes on the pledge. The conservatives would prefer the oath to have some religious significance other than being a meaningless political or social statement. Most religious people, who are often considered to be conservative, were opposed to Newdow opinion since they felt that it was morally repugnant. A true conservative would be opposed to any move to fully separate the state and religion as the Newdow case required. For a conservative, inclusion of religious value in school aspects helps in shaping them morally. For them the phrase in the pledge is a mere acknowledgement of a religious nation and does not affect anyone’s beliefs. Furthermore, conservative would argue that no one is usually forced to recite the contentious phrases. Additionally, conservatives fell that it is part of their responsibility to share their belief with others. Conservatism is all about practicing morality in addition to maintaining the existing norms. It entails supporting that which affects the majority and in the case of Newdow, the majority was those opposed to removal of the phrase. Conservatives would thus oppose any moves to remove the contentious phrase (Williams

United Kingdom sports policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

United Kingdom sports policy - Essay Example Sports have been promoted in the United Kingdom as a modern public sector service by successive governments. (Henry. 2001, 19). Being a competitive activity between individuals, groups and states, it is but natural that sports will come within the purview of state policy for smooth promotion as well as to ensure steady growth of sporting abilities in the country to generate a strong feeling of nationhood through better performance in international competitions. Governments thus invariably indulge in formulating sports policies that will earn laurels for the individual and the country in the international arena. Sports policies are also deemed significant to ensure equity in dispensation to afford equal opportunities for weaker sections of society. Notwithstanding the above, it is commonly noticed that public policy is influenced by practical politics, power relations, resources and technical considerations. (Veal.2002, 11). United Kingdom has been at the forefront of sports over the years. The famous quote attributed to the Duke of Wellington that the Battle of Waterloo was won on the sports fields of Eton and Harrow has justifiably highlighted the importance of sports in British national life. The UK sports policy is contained in Game Plan: A Strategy for Delivering Government's Sports and Physical Activity Objectives developed by the UK Strategy Unit under the British Prime Minister's Office published in 2002. (Game Plan, 2002). The policy and strategy laid down in this document has been followed up rigorously and is reviewed every year. The salient facets are discussed as per succeeding paragraphs. Game Plan: A Strategy for Delivering Government's Sports and Physical Activity Objectives The importance to sports policy in general and the policy document in particular is evident with the Foreword being written by the Prime Minister Mr. Tony Blair. Mr. Blair highlights the significance of sports as a powerful tool to achieve a number of goals for governments and the need for being adequately equipped to take advantage of the means for nation building. (Game Plan, 2002). The Report has been focused as per Blair on the importance of increasing grass roots participation in sports for health benefits so that the current health costs of 2bn a year or 54,000 lives lost prematurely could be cut down. A government - sports bodies partnership is sought to be created to achieve these aims. (Game Plan, 2002). The Prime Minister has also highlighted the need to cut down on sports bureaucracy. The focus is on the younger generation and it is envisaged that at least 75 percent youth should participate in sports in the coming years. The Secretary Of State RT Hon Tessa Jowell has also emphasized the need for greater focus on participation in sports as only 32 percent of adults in England were doing more than 30 minutes of moderate exercise five times a week which is the recommendation of health professionals. (Game Plan, 2002). The disparity in the population with limited participation by the lower income groups and fall in involvement with increasing age has been noted with concern. Ms Jowell has bench marked British performance with nations as Finland and Australia which have a large participation in sports and also one which is increasing with age. Britain's performance has been highlighted as the best in Olympics since 1920, with world champions in more than 50 sports but most of these are not in sports carrying a high profile

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Implementation, Strategic Controls, and Contingency Plans Essay - 1

Implementation, Strategic Controls, and Contingency Plans - Essay Example ntiation generic strategy with the market development grand strategy that would be instrumental in increasing the market share and financial income by as much as 20% per annum for the 3rd year and too increase further to 30% from the 4th to 5th years. Implementation of Differentiation Generic Strategy: (1) Caribou should enhance visibility with the positive attributes at the core of their mission and vision statements (Bockstedt & Goh, 2012, p. 237) by increasing advertisements and promotional efforts; (2) Caribou should build customer loyalty through differentiating the Caribou brand from other specialty coffee brands in terms of focusing on the quality advantage; (3) Caribou should not only focus on satisfying customers; but more so, on delighting them and providing them with exemplary personalized experience as they purchase the company’s products. approximately 7 new stores per annum for the 3rd to 4th years and to increase to 10 stores per annum starting on the 5th year; (2) Caribou is renovating the current store within the Chicago market; (3) it will reintroduce a unique brand to the residents that has a customized Chicago-centric look and taste; (4) Caribou should expand beyond United States and would start operation in the Middle East, Colombia, and some parts of Europe starting from the 3rd year to the 5th year time period. From among the noted activities for the strategies identified, the following are emphasized: (1) development of a franchising pipeline in the non-traditional locations like airports, offices, and hospitals within United States; (2) opening of new stores within strategic locations in the U.S.; (3) renovation of the Chicago store; (4) expansion to international markets. The milestones include: (1) the expansion which would mark the company first-owned store for the past five years; (2) expanding into international markets; and (3) renovating the current store in the Chicago market. Current and future resources would be primarily

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The Age Gap Between Baby Boomers and Today's Youth Essay

The Age Gap Between Baby Boomers and Today's Youth - Essay Example Every generation has its own cultural values, their views which are tuned to the period they belong to. Both of these generations have to face many difficulties and undergo a lot of problems. Our topic of study is the age gap between baby boomers and the millennial generation. Each generation has its own attributes. There is a wide age gap or generation gap and so the conflicts are likely to occur between these two generations. The likings, tastes, values and attitude towards life, everything differ from the youth. Both generations, for our overall progress, can adopt things from each other. Our research is based on the two of generations, the baby boomers and the millennial generation or generation Y. The study will focus on how a good rapport can be maintained between baby boomers and millennial generation which is very important for building a society with a fine amalgamation of old values and modern values. Introduction Before starting our discussion on the topic let’s discuss about the concept â€Å"Generation Gap.† As Gerhard Falk and Ursula Falk mentioned in their book â€Å"Youth Culture and Generation Gap,† â€Å"The change in values from one generation to the next is called â€Å"The Generation Gap.† (Pg. 23, 2005) They further say â€Å"this not only involves education, occupation, and preferences for lines of action, but also family size, status Vietnam of women.†... To find out the problems arise due to the age gap. Try to find out the solutions which can be useful for individual growth and the growth of the nation. Hypotheses: The baby boomers are more strict and rigid and they are reluctant to adopt new things easily. The condition of baby boomers and young generation differ from country to country. Baby boomers are more stabilized, secured whereas the young generation is more depressed and living in a very uncertain era. The baby boomers used to be closed minded whereas the young generation is very open minded. Young generation is more technosavy than the baby boomers. Generation gap hampers the work culture. Literature Review The consequences of age gap between baby boomers and young generation differ from country to country. It depends upon the then state of affairs of the country in which the baby boomers were born. For example, the baby boomers in America in their young age were living a prosperous life. It was because the after World War II America was the country which had to bear a minimum loss unlike the European nations. But still the baby boomers of European countries and America were in much better condition. â€Å"In Europe and North America, boomers are widely associated with privilege, as many grew up in a time of affluence. As a group, they were the healthiest and wealthiest generation and amongst the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time.† (2009). Consequently, it became the most powerful and affluent country in the world and thus started ruling over the world. This was the period when the baby boomers were living a very affluent life. On the contrary the situation in third world countries was totally different. For example in India the baby boomers

Monday, July 22, 2019

Blacks in the Revolutionary War Essay Example for Free

Blacks in the Revolutionary War Essay Blacks in the Revolutionary War1 Blacks in the Revolutionary War African American Studies Latasha Gating September 20, 2012 LaChanda K. Clemons Blacks in the Revolutionary War2 Looking back at the history of the United States, it is evident that the Revolutionary War impacted the country a great deal. It was the first war fought with slaves thanks to Lord Dunmore’s controversial proclamation. Historian Benjamin Quarles stated â€Å"The Negros role in the Revolutionary War can be best understood by realizing his major loyalty was not to a place nor to a people but to a principle. There were black loyalists, black sailors, black patriots and black regiments who fought and died in the name of Independence. It has been estimated that over 5,000 African Americans served as soldiers for the Continental army and more than 20,000 fought for the British cause. Slavery in Colonial America is noted to have begun in 1619 with the arrival of 20 African slaves on the Dutch ship named Man-of-war. The slaves made up over half the population in the colonies although they were seen more so as property instead of people. In 1776, there were about 500,000 African American men, women and children slaves. Everyone had a reason for taking part in the war. There were factors that motivated the blacks to take part in such a battle as well. The text mentions that when it came to fighting between the Patriots on one side and their Loyalist American allies on the other, African Americans joined the side that offered freedom. Having that choice of gaining freedom in exchange for serving in the military was indeed motivation. Other motives for blacks were the Blacks in the Revolutionary War3 desire for adventure, belief in the justice and the goals of the revolution and the possibility of receiving a bounty. The Continental navy and The Royal Navy signed blacks into the navy because of the manpower shortages at sea. Some blacks had been captured from the royal navy and used by the Patriots on their vessels. They also served as seamen on British vessel. Slaves and free slaves served as seaman. Because so many Patriot leaders resisted employing black troops, by mid-1775, the British had taken the initiative in recruiting African Americans. Revolutionary leaders feared using blacks in the arm forces. They were afraid that the slaves who were armed would uprise against them. In May 1775 the Massachusetts Committee of Safety put a stop to enlisting slaves in the armies of the colony. However, this did not apply to the blacks who were already serving in the army. 1775-1783 the navy recruits freed black slaves and runaway slaves. Lord Dunmore, born John Murray, was the last Royal Governor of Virginia. Because he was short of men, Dunmore issued a proclamation stating that all able bodied men to assist him in the defense of the colony, including the slaves of rebels. He promised freedom to the blacks who served. After doing so in a month he had 800 soldiers. The purpose of his Proclamation was to declare martial law and to encourage slaves of rebels in Virginia to leave their masters and support the loyalist cause â€Å"All indentured servants, Negroes, or others†¦free that are able Blacks in the Revolutionary War4 and willing to bear arms†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Such an act outrage Virginians. Those that took Dunmore up on his word range between 800 and 2,000. The Virginia Congress replied to his Proclamation with the Dunmore’s wasn’t as successful as his plan out, the number of his soldiers decreased due to smallpox outbreaks. Dunmore’s Proclamation was the first mass emancipation of slaves in American history. After the war ended, over 5,000 blacks left for Jamaica or St. Augustine because they were the property of loyalist that they would never gain their freedom from slavery. By 1786, many were back in bondage. There were those who were Patriots’ slaves but sided with the British were promised their freedom and was granted such. Many black patriots found that the post war military held no rewards for them. So many men served in the armed forces which meant that their wives were left behind and had to take on their husband roles. Their lives changed a great deal during the Revolutionary War. The women, who could, serve the Colonial military forces and interacted with the male soldiers in camp. They were usually the wives and daughters of the male soldiers. The cooked, did laundry and cared for those that were sick. There also some who fought in the military battles: Margaret Cochran Corbin and Captain Molly. Molloy’s husband had taught her how to load and fire cannons. Black women, many of whom were slaves, served both Americans and the British in the capacity of nurses, laundresses and cooks. Blacks in the Revolutionary War5 Many African American soldiers fought and died for the sake of the Revolutionary War. The war ended in 1783, slavery was dying in the North and declining in Chesapeake. What was truly the purpose of Blacks fighting if they did not attain freedom at the end of the war? Were the lives lost beneficially to the slaves or was it just a gimmick to get blacks to stand in stops where white soldiers have already died in. Blacks in the Revolutionary War6 Bibliography Georgii, Colette. May 30, 2007. Slavery in Colonial America. www. helium. com/items/365359-Colonial-Early- Gabriel, Brian. Women’s roles and lives in the revolutionary war. http://www. ehow. com/) (http://blackloyalist. com/canadiandigitalcollection/story/revolution/dunmore. htm) Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 90-91 Harold, Stanley, Hine, W. C. , Hine, D. C. The African American Odyssey: Volume 1, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. . (Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. Pp. xxiv. ) [ 2 ]. Scribner, Robert L. (1983). Revolutionary Virginia, the Road to Independence. University of Virginia Press. Pp. xxiv [ 3 ]. Halpern, Rick (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 90-91 [ 4 ]. Harold, Stanley, Hine, W. C. , Hine, D. C. The African American Odyssey: Volume 1, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. [ 6 ]. Gabriel, Brian. Women’s roles and lives in the revolutionary war. http://www. ehow. com/)

Sunday, July 21, 2019

First Order Change In Organizational System

First Order Change In Organizational System This study discusses the impact of change in the organization towards management and the challenges that the company have to face. This study used two main methodologies, namely: case study and interviews. A case study was used to study on the change of the organization which is based on first-order change. In addition, an interview was used to study the perception of the management towards decision making on changing. In order to achieve this objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with Assistant General Manager and the Marketing Executive of the Company. The change of organization can be seen through changing system in multi-level marketing to single-level marketing. The result from this study has been analyzed using observational method, structured interviews, and analysis of documents, in order to identify the impact from change system. It is expected that the findings of this study will give a clear understanding and awareness of the various challenges in managing effectiv e management towards change system. Keywords: First-order Change, Challenges In Changing Introduction This research project was conducted at Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd. (EEMSB), a Bumiputera owned company that markets health products produced by a network company named as Kumpulan Syarikat Doktor Azizan (KUSDA) situated in Jitra, Kedah. EEMSB is also one of a company under KUSDA apart from other support companies such as Homeopathic Laboratories (M) Sdn. Bhd. (HOMEOLAB), also the producer of most of the products of EEMSB, KUSKAMEI the producer of spices, Printing Era PDA (PEPDA) producing printed materials, Centre for Homeopathic Medicine Biochemistry PDA (PPHB) which is based on the homeopathic treatment clinic and biochemistry, College of Homeopathy Chamber of institutions in the field of alternative medicine and homeopathy and biochemical UNA Beauty House of Beauty Care Centers Face. Found by the late Prof Dr Azizan Bin Ismail, mainly focused to market health products developed by him which based on homeopathic medicine known as Biochemistry Schuessler, Herbalisme and Aromatherapy. Products marketed by EEMSB are based on the concept of Halalan Toyyiba which is a part of Islamic halal products and good for health. They have received many compliments because of its effectiveness is being proven successful. ListenRead phonetically   Dictionary View detailed dictionary By using the image of Prof. Dr Azizan as a trade mark and immortalize him on the products logo, EEMSB is now widely known throughout Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam. Even though the company was established in 2001 but actually the business had started since 30 years ago when the founder has marketed the products through his clinic which was operated in Jitra, Kedah. Later in 1985, he had made a stepping stone to appoint one of the companys based in Kuala Lumpur to be his distributor. This joint-venture business has carried out until 1989, when the late Prof. Dr Azizan had set up Sistem Era Edar Sdn. Bhd. known as SEE on the same year. At that time SEE was the company which deal the business located at Bandar Darul Aman which was known as Tanah Merah, Jitra. The business was conducted in conventional method and the distributor was appointed to distribute the products to certain areas or locations. This direct selling business has started when SEE is formed only on July 18th in 1991. In 1998, during the economic crisis, the company had no profit and faced loss because of the situation, which lead to retrenchment of some of the workers. Nevertheless, with the remain workers, the business is still active whereby, Prof. Dr Azizan , has formed a company name as Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd. (EEMSB) on the April 1st in 2001. EEMSB is placed as the headquarters for the Group Companies of Dr Azizan (KUSDA), now consists of 125 workers from the KUSDA and from the nine service centres in Malaysia by the concepts of multi level marketing. Literature review Change defined as an effort that consists of actual physical changes to operations and different emotional stimulation (Bernerth, 2004) is painful in the workplace, going from what is certain and known to the otherwise. So, organizational change is typically conceptualized as moving from the status quo to a new, desired, configuration to better match the environment. Change therefore can be seen as a departure from the norm or alternatively as normal and simply a natural response to environmental and internal conditions (Bernerth, 2004). Change is about adaptation and resiliency while maintenance is about continuing activities, structure and function. However the change of the organization might be first-order change or second-order change and this paper attempts to reveal the change of organizational is based on first-order change. First-order incremental change may involve adjustment in system, processes or structures but it does not involve fundamental change in strategy, core values or corporate identity (Palmer, 2009). Comparing with second-order change that is more radically transform. For Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd. the first-order change that they have being made is based on a few factors that we will be revealed. 3.0 Research Methodology Data collection involved interviewing with General Assistant Manager, Dr. (H) Mazelan Bin Ismail and Marketing Executive by Dr. (H) Che Normawan Bt Idris. All these data collection techniques have used observational methods, structured interviews, and analysis of documents. A qualitative design and Open Question was used in the interview. The research question was: why company makes a decision to change their system and how they cope with the challenges that came from company itself, members and distributors. Based on the questions, objective for the research was developed to create a clear understanding towards this research. It is related to three parts: perception from the organization change, impact from the organization change, implementation of organizational change. Objective 1: why they choose the system (Single Level Marketing) and how the members perception from the change? Objective 2: aimed to enquire to what extent the impact of the organization change and how the member and distributor accept the change? Objective 3: what is the strategy they used to implement the organization change? During interview, we conducted semi structured and audio-taped interviews with an average duration of 60 minutes. Two different interview questionnaires were used one interview questionnaire for General Assistant Manager that is more to the managerial question, the other one was for Executive marketing which is more to outside challenges. Topics covered in both interview questionnaires were the same with few different questions for each group of interviewees. Open-ended questions were carefully worded to be as neutral as possible without creating awkward situation or offending interviewees. Interview questionnaires for both interviewees were pilot tested to check whether there is any ambiguity or confusion of questions. 4. 0 Research Findings 4.1 Multi level marketing concepts Prior to this, when Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd. (EEMSB) used multi level marketing as their operation system, it is more to the head hunting concepts which is finding the person or agent or down line people to expand the business. If there is no one join, the company cannot growth well because of the strength of the program lies in the number of new members who join in and not totally depends on the product itself. However, repeat purchase will occur if the featured products have a quality and useful towards customers. The concepts of multi level marketing can be seen as:Read phonetically  Dictionary View detailed dictionaryRead phonetically  Dictionary View detailed dictionar The Company will take or appoint an individual as a member of the company or being as distributor to distribute the goods. Member or distributor concerned will appoint another individual (down line) to form their own network to sell a company products. Recruitment of new members or new distributors can be continued until its reach a certain level. Each member or distributors will get commissions / bonuses / incentives from private sales and the sales or distributors in the network (over-riding bonus). Figure 1: Multi Level Marketing Member 1 COMPANY Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd Supplier / Distributor Member 2 Member 3 Member 1 Member 2 Member 3 Supplier / Distributor Multi Level Marketing In this strategy, the seller recruits other distributors or sales people, and also receives commissions and bonuses on the sales they make. Down liners are necessary to increase the sales force, and thus generate a huge number of sales. 4.2 Single-level marketing concepts For the new system that EEMSB implementing now is known as single level marketing. Single Level Marketing (SLM) is a compensation plan for direct selling in which sales associates are paid only for their own personal sales activity. They do not recruit other sales representative and derive income from them as in a multi-level marketing (MLM) organization. The concepts of single level marketing can be seen as:Read phonetically  Dictionary View detailed dictionaryRead phonetically  Dictionary View detailed dictionar The company will appoint a sales representative or the sales agent and pay salaries or commissions or by the combination of salary and commission from the sale made. Sales representatives / sales agents were not allowed to nominate or sponsor sales representative and agent of the other sales. Figure 2: Single Level Marketing COMPANY Era Edar Marketing Sdn.Bhd Supplier / Distributor member Retailer Single level marketing- rewards the sellers for their personal sales activity. They do not sponsor any other member or distributorship or sales personal. Income from the business based on commission or bonus after sale of the products. 4.3 Change system and challenges Various aspects needs to be taken into consideration in assuming that types of organizational changes can be neatly categorized as small, adaptive, and incremental compared to those that are large and transformational. Mental frameworks, individual perspectives, the extent to which a change is directly relevant to a person and his or her activities, and the degree to which he or she accepts the need for change will all influence how the change is viewed. Here we choose to view from the management and members of the company. In view of the changes made by the company of Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd., Multi Level Marketing (MLM) changed to Single Level Marketing (SLM), an aspect of similarity by both are subject to the same Direct Sales Act 1993 in which this Act is to make provision for the licensing of those who carry out direct selling business, the regulation of direct sales and for other matters connected therewith. The concept of direct selling is where individuals were trained to understand their role not only on sales or sponsorship, but also it provides a unique channel to customers and consumers in accordance with the requirements at the time. Therefore, sellers are more alert and focused to meet the needs of users in the process of purchasing and selecting products. Advantages to members or distributors in direct selling activities are that they can become leaders to themselves, manage their own time, getting paid or the income of their own efforts, close ties and expand the number of their contacts. For the concept of MLM, the activities carried out require a lot of documentation. The three main purposes in this concept are to use, sell and sponsor. The management is only required to provide information and guidance to the major distributors to market the product. Distributors need to find and appoint down liners to market the product. This method not only promotes the growth of the company to grow in terms of membership but also users of the products. In MLM system, the bonus is based on sales made due and payable each month. It is in the form of incentives on sales made by down liners. For this method, the dealer does not have to work hard to get rewards. In this case the product will not change. Compared with SLM system, it involves three stages, using, selling and sponsoring. For SLM method, all levels, whether distributors or down liners should make one for the benefits and returns that can be redeemed immediately. Returns or benefits provided in the form of discounts or points. For this method, the distributor or down liners are equal. Business through the SLM method is simpler, easier, and does not involve down liners. It encourages more people to trade and indirectly over the companies and product output.ListenRead phoneticall   Dictionary View detailed dictionary Listen Read phonetically Dictionary View detailed dictionary Translate any website Nord-Cinema-France El Confidencial-Spain Spiegel Online-Germany Venezuela Tuya-Spanish Focus Online-Germany Pà º à §Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ¢â‚¬  Ãƒ ¦Ã‚  Ã‚ ½-Japan NouvelObs-France Do more with Google Translate Listen Read phonetically Dictionary View detailed dictionary Translate any website Nord-Cinema-France El Confidencial-Spain Spiegel Online-Germany Venezuela Tuya-Spanish Focus Online-Germany Pà º à §Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ¢â‚¬  Ãƒ ¦Ã‚  Ã‚ ½-Japan NouvelObs-France Do more with Google Translate Recently used: Malay > English English > Malay Malay > Malay Detect language Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Basque Belarusian Bulgarian Catalan Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Filipino Finnish French Galician Georgian German Greek Haitian Creole Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Irish Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Macedonian Malay Maltese Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese Welsh Yiddish Listen Read phonetically Dictionary View detailed dictionary Translate any website Nord-Cinema-France El Confidencial-Spain Spiegel Online-Germany Venezuela Tuya-Spanish Focus Online-Germany Pà º à §Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ¢â‚¬  Ãƒ ¦Ã‚  Ã‚ ½-Japan NouvelObs-France Do more with Google Translate 4.4 Management Implementation In making this change, the management has set a strategy of gradual and prudent so as not to dramatically affect the distributor, down liners, workers and goods sold. The management provides a period of one year to dealers to make changes in terms of incentives and the income derived from the proceeds of the sale. Typically, the bonus will be paid once a month but the new system, bonuses and incentives are given immediately. The main purpose of the changes made was to make the business carried on is based on the characteristics of Islamic business and non-conventional. Revenue earned income is more beneficial and all parties share profits and earn rewards and benefits equally. An important aspect of the researchers model is the concept of the order or magnitude of change. First-order change is change that is consistent with prevailing values and norms, meets with general agreement, and can be implemented using peoples existing knowledge and skills. A change becomes second-order when it is not obvious how it will make things better, it requires people to learn new approaches, or it conflicts with prevailing values and norms. Second-order changes require leaders to work far more deeply with staff and the business community. They can disrupt peoples sense of well-being and the co-operation and cohesion of the business community. They may confront and challenge expertise and competencies and throw people into states of conscious incompetence. Different perceptions about the implications of change mean that a change that appears to be a solution to one person can appear to be a problem for another. To the degree that individuals and/or stakeholder groups in the company or company system hold conflicting values, seek different norms, have different knowledge, or operate with varying mental models of business strategy, a proposed change might represent a first-order change for some and a second-order change for others (Waters, Marzano, and McNulty, 2003). Change and improvement of this sort takes conscious effort that is focused on clear outcomes, it takes the right set of conditions in the professional learning context, and it takes time. We cannot assume that because people appear to have learned, it follows that they will change their practice or that because they have changed their practice, it follows that every outcomes will improve. The company faces challenges in which not all distributors who received the positive changes made. Some of them have ceased to be a distributor because the feel there is an injustice towards those who have been longer in the business. The new system requires them to work together with down liners and equally be rewarded, where else the distributor feels they are pioneer and deserve more attention and privileges. In applying the SLM system, the management should augment its efforts to educate and provide information on all targets for this system is accepted and fully utilized. Objectives are to provide convenience to all parties. While, the use of the old system, the company need to only provide training and information to the distributor against the new system at all levels who are involved. Accordingly, companies should be more active and require more aggressive actions in order to provide training strategies and to be more detailed in explanations pertaining to systems and effective use of skills through wider media. Educators at all levels of the system need to test the impact of changed practices on the diverse learners for whom they are responsible, using inquiry skills to judge when their practice possesses the desired outcomes and when it is not necessary and need to be changed. When such evidence-based practices are firmly embedded, they can generate their own momentum. Each view of change described above reflects the fact that changes in beliefs and understanding are the foundation of achieving lasting reform (Fullan, 2007). However, Understanding can follow action (Spillane et al., 2002). Learning may be deeper when it follows attempts to try out new practices, and so both practices and beliefs need to be addressed through a continuous cycle of inquiry within and between educators communities of practice. In our cognitive framework, the nature of the changes sought by policy makers is also important because some changes involve more complex cognitive transformations for implementing agents than others. Focusing on the balance between continuity, growth, and loss, Marris (1975) identifies three levels of social change. The first level is incremental change, which requires little or no alteration of the extant purposes or expectations of the people undertaking the change. Such change can be incorporated into existing schemas and frameworks rather than undermining them. The second level requires changes in the growth of some of the changes worked, but still have goals and hopes to remain intact the changes sought by an innovation, the greater the extent to which existing schemes must be restructured to form coherent understandings of the new ideas. (Spillane et al., 2002). The third level of change represents loss for the implementing agent, in that it necessitates the discrediting of existing schemes and frameworks. This level of social change is the most difficult to achieve (Marris, 1975). For example, change the way of incentives and bonuses based on any particular sale or points earned during the period that is does not require changes in goals and expectations of the company itself. From the interviews conducted, we found that effective communication played a significant role in ensuring the system successfully operated. This, in turn impacted on the products volume and the number increased of the distributors. Communication is important among management and employees or distributors, and also in sustaining relationship among employees. Most of the interviewed employees concurred that listening skills, as part of effective communication, is one of the key competencies that the management ought to possess at all times. Before, during and after the implementation of change, management should listen to their employees and distributors opinions and understand their perspective and feelings on the imposed changes. This would further help management to introduce future organizational change. 5.0 suggestions This research has revealed suggestions for management in the direct selling industry recognized as volatile and vulnerable businesses to external environment as to take what actions in order to smoothly implement organizational change. Emphasis on action orientated implications is to ensure that all issues and concerns are acted upon immediately without procrastination. When a decision to apply organizational change occurs in the direct selling industry, managers as being responsible for the success of organizational change should pay attention to their communication approach with employees or distributors, distributors attitude, perception of managers actions, distributors motivation and continuous improvement of the working environment. Consequently, the following actions are suggested: Action 1: Realize the value of effective employees and distributors cooperation and collaboration, motivation in the workplace. Before implementing a change in the system, managers should understand that different individuals hold dissimilar opinions about change. Also, not all employees, distributors and member are outspoken and willing to be honest with their managers or up line that is management. Therefore, managers should have the initiative to interact with employees and keep them informed about any organizational change. By maintaining communication and listening to employees, and distributor managers can understand their unfulfilled needs and resistance to change. Thats where, in the unfreezing Lewins stage (Levasseur, 2001) the communication should be improved between managers, employees and distributors. Action 2: During the implementation of organizational change, which is the moving Lewins stage (Levasseur, 2001), managers should be able to understand employees and distributors attitudes, but also they should keep in mind Conners (1998) stages of human cycle of negative response in related industry, such as stability, immobilization and denial. As leaders, managers should guide and direct employees along the organizational change process, be aware of importance of employees motivation to proceed with change, and be receptive to new ideas that come from employees. Listening and explaining to employees is a necessary process to convince them about the projected benefits that are expected from the introduced change. Action 3: As soon as the change is implemented, which is the refreezing Lewins stage (Levasseur, 2001) managers should continue to communicate with employees about the change implemented. This will promote an open exchange of ideas and information among all parties. By being attentive, managers can discover to what extent change affects employees especially distributors and take corrective actions immediately to support them. For example, managers should be aware that although organizational change impacts that bring positive results into the related industry do not necessarily bring positive outcome to their distributors. Change of a working system especially in selling and marketing the product may increase employees income with extra workload creating fatigue and low spirits. To distributors this is such a challenge for them to work hard than the old days just sponsoring the down liners to get benefits. We can conclude that, before the change occurs it seems important for managers to have thorough analysis of the implementation of organizational change to enable to determine at extent the change is beneficial to both management performance and employees. Since the direct selling industry requires a high labour input, management should pay attention to different kinds of impacts imposed on employees. They should, in particularly, keep in mind employees motivation create an environment that encourages employees to accept change and sustain the companys product competitiveness. 6.0 Summary Research has been done in Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd., we identified that observational method, structured interview and analysis of document is used in research. We found the company is using first order change. Hence we recommend three action plans should be implemented in order to enhance the development of the Company. Methods are as employees motivation, accept change and sustain product competitiveness. As a conclusion, this study was done successfully and had achieved its objectives to study on how SLM works in the company. We found that effective communication played a significant role in ensuring the system successfully operated. Communication is important among management and employees or distributors, and also in sustaining relationship among employees. Understanding the people involve and communication are part of effectiveness of the implementation the system. 7. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Era Edar Marketing Sdn. Bhd. (EEMSB), for their support and permission in providing the research grant for us to study about the change in organization in order to complete our research and achieve the objective of this course.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience Advertising is the non-personal way of communication of information more frequently than not paid proposed for and usually influential in nature about products, services or ideas by renowned sponsors through the a variety of media. It is a presentation of idea, manufactured goods, or organization, in order to induce persons to approve, buy, or support of it. Advertising is also defined as paid form of any promotion conveyed from side to side an accumulation medium that viewers are more likely in the course of paying attention and consideration in the subject matter of the advertising conceded through their selected medium and it is explained to be part of the marketing mix in the promotional tools. The globalization of competition, saturation of markets, and development of information technology have enhanced customer awareness and created a situation where long-term success is no longer achieved through optimized product price and qualities. Instead, companies build their success on a long-term customer relationship. According to former studies, it can cost as much as six times more to win a new customer than it does to keep an existing one. Hence, the increase and retention of loyal customers has become a key factor for long-term success of the companies. The main emphasis in marketing has shifted from winning new customers to the retention of existing ones The Von Restorff effect was identified by Hedwig von Restorff in 1933. She conducted a set of memory experiments around isolated and distinctive items, concluding that an isolated item, in a list of otherwise similar items, would be better remembered than an item in the same relative position in a list where all items were similar. There can also be a reverse effect here. You remember the unique item, but the attention that it grabs from you is removed from other items thus you may in fact remember less overall. Hedwigs work relates to Gestalt, where she related it to the Figure and Ground principles. Attention is usually captured by salient, novel, surprising, or distinctive stimuli. These may be used to enhance the von Restorff effect. In the attention age, when the plethora of media around us is constantly battling for a moment of our time, advertisers make much use of this principle, each vying with the other to stand out from the crowd and hence be remembered by the target audie nce. The Von Restorff effect is also called the Isolation Effect or the Distinctiveness Principle. The same principle has also been described as prominence effects. Traditionally there are two approaches to treating customer loyalty trough advertising. Some researchers have investigated the nature of different levels of loyalty through retention; others have explored the influence of individual factors on loyalty. In this paper, both treatments are combined to investigate which specific factors in the telecommunication sector influence the loyalty rate of the various customers segmented by loyalty. The potential for establishing loyalty depends on the object (i.e. product or vendor), on the subject (customer) or on the environment (market, other suppliers, etc.). In broader term, for both, customer and manufacturing products firms, a firms ability to distinguish its products as of competitors and to build success brands is critical for achievement. As a consequence, firms may use more on their marketing infrastructure to raise the sales by attracting more consumers to the product group as a whole as healthy as by convincing current consumers to switch their purchases as of competitors products to the firms brand. Moreover, firms by means of strong brand names may be clever to charge best prices based on the additional worth of the brand which would too improve the firms profitability. Therefore, firms that connect in heavy marketing communication activities in advertising may show performance that is improved than those investing less powerfully in marketing infrastructure. In a bigger scenario the advertisement is treated from two viewpoints: as advertisement specialists and customers. Advertisement specialists create decisions incident to preparation, creation and transmission of the advertisement. Customers on the other hand act in response to the advert which advertisement specialists have produced and the presented them. Following incorporating these two perspectives we be able to state that constant communication of advert and customer is experiential in the advertisement procedure. As marketing specialists move particular message to the customers while advertise incredible, the advertisement might be called communication procedure There are several other reasons for a customer to respond absolutely to advertising. Advertising has the apparently magical property that persons whose tastes are most excellent served by a known brand are those most probable to observe an ad intended for that brand. Advertisers decide the media in which they advertise in fraction to maximize the purchase likelihood intended for their brand. In result the producer distributes his advertisements among media so that the communication is seen by persons who are most probable to repeat buy the particular brand. Advertising efficiency depends on users receptivity towards an ad and on their approach towards advertising. For turn out advertisement found out, persons respondents with more positive attitudes towards advertising recalled a higher numeral of advertisements the day exposure. In the internet, it is recurrent that advertising is used with levels of forced contact than only static banners whose level would contrast to print adverti sing of some type. Since higher intrusiveness leads to ad evasion and irritation, a fewer favorable attitude among customers advertising can be supposed. Presumptuous that the overall approach towards internet advertising is fewer favorable than towards print advertising, lower ad reminiscence can be expected. Customer Preference and acceptance in optimistic conditions mean the identical obsession but it is positive to keep the fad in mind with penchant notice to indicate choices between unbiased or valued options with receipt representing a readiness to stand the condition or less desirable options Advertising is an imperative social phenomenon. It stimulates economic activity models, consumption, life-styles and an assured value orientation. Customers are confronted with daily amount of advertising in numerous media. With the constant hit of different marketing media, it is presumable that it will have an effect on society and individualism as a whole. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Companies understand that marketing has an important role in their overall accomplishment. They recognize that if there are any functions near to customers its either Marketing or Sales. Sales develop into a direct interface among products of companies and customers, and on the other hand marketing is an indirect function between company and customers. Most researchers have implicitly assumed that a consumer uses the same criteria to evaluate all brands in a product class in Von Restorff effect. This study views the consumer as a more flexible information processor. The attributes an individual recalls or uses to evaluate a brand in a product class may vary. To some extent, attributes may be influenced by the advertisement the consumer sees for the brand. There has been a strong support for the espousal of consumer retention in as one of the key performance indicators in Von Restorff effect. It has found that there is a high association between customer retention and the profit earn by the industries. The fragmentation of media choices and the active nature of the marketplace, tied with an enlarged number of additional demanding and prosperous consumers, brought bigger challenges to marketing practitioners in keeping hold of their regular customers. An advertisement may provide information about a brand on several attributes. Attention getting services such as bold type and arrows can draw attention to a particular attribute and away from others. Advertisement induced recalls may or may not translate into product use during a subsequent brand evaluation. Marketers have implicitly assumed that people who see advertisements encouraging recall of specific brand attributes will increase their use of that information for brand evaluation. One example of this is using recall of a claim to test advertisement effectiveness. Yet research in social cognition indicates that enhanced recall of an attribute does not necessarily imply increased emphasis on that attribute during a subsequent brand evaluation in Von Restorff effect. In advertising, to get the attention of the packaging is the most important medium of communication because it reaches almost all buyers in the category and is present at the crucial moment when procurement decision is made; and buyers are actively involved with packaging as they examine it to obtain the information they need. A well suited packaging material works as an instrument to differentiate a product from a wide range of other products having similar qualities and helps customers to finalize his buying behavior. It can be claimed that package performs a vital role in marketing connections and can be treated as one of the most major feature to pursue consumers purchase judgment. In this context, seeking to optimize the effectiveness of package in a buying place, the researches of package, its elements and their impact on consumers buying behaviour became a relevant issue. Due to emergent self-service and altering customers standard of living, their life style the awareness in package that includes size, quantity, color, shape as a mechanism of sales advertising and stimulator of spontaneous purchasing behavior is rising more and more. So package carries out an imperative role in advertising communications, in particular in the spot of sale and it is treated as the most significant features influence purchase decision of consumers. Earlier study has shown that there is no agreement on categorization of package basics as well as package impact on purchase decision of consumers. The effects of prominent information in an advertisement may be mediated by several individual and situational factors that may mediate the relationship between prominence in an ad and the evaluative criteria used. Advertisements are read both by consumers who are interested in evaluating the advertised brands (brand processing) and by those who are not (non brand processing). Attribute information in an advertisement may be processed differently under brand processing and under non brand processing conditions. Color is one of the most important non verbal signs. The impact of colors for the marketers through advertisement is very well recognized. When it is about products, it is become aware as one of the foreseeable signs of the whole look of products that also have an impact on the sales success of a product. Nowadays, it is fairly clear that products must not be designed just in order to meet up the functional needs of the customers but at the same time it must be attractive and eye catching as well. That is the main reason design is accentuate as a key marketing element. Conversely, colors do not merely lie in the aesthetics as it is strained that colors have two additional essential functions from a marketing viewpoint. The first use, it is suggested that colors draw attention to themselves by implying that color is the most necessary visual element in advertising. The subsequent purpose of colors that is highlighted is the position of colors as a way of communication. Hence, it is de clared that colors have the skill to express meanings predominantly while it comes to such marketing phenomenon as advertising and packaging. The graphics are any lines, metaphors, symbols, snaps, and text that narrate to the brand name. The most ordinary graphics in advertising are applications of figurative representation and abstract symbolization with the exclusion that make use of design drawings the most. Characteristics of design fundamentals may be grouped as functional and visual elements. Visual include form, text, pictures, colors and decorations and functional elements comprise structural designs (store, protect, reclose and open), material designs (display value and emotional appeal), volume designs (economy). Advertisement must also draw customer attention with visual elements that please consumer psychosomatic desires other than their main functionalities Consumer attitude is a blend of perceptions, values and attitude. The customer must initial distinguish the product and then focus beliefs and values on top of the product and make a choice and then decide to purchase or not. Beliefs are more susceptible to marketing than values for the reason that beliefs are subject matter to emotion and knowledge. Self perceptions of familiarity may affect the individuals use of stored product class knowledge to interpret and integrate new brand information. This approach to familiarity is phenomenological; it focuses on the individuals subjective perceptions rather than on an objectively verifiable reality. There is evidence that self perceptions of familiarity are not equivalent to objective measures of expertise or knowledge and that these self perceptions affect processing. If prominence directs subjects attention to a key attribute, it may direct attention away from other, non prominent attributes in the ad and this may, in turn, decrease recall of non prominent attributes. An individuals evaluation task while viewing an advertisement may affect the processing that occurs during exposure. Brand and non brand tasks may involve different processes, but both may facilitate the use of prominent information. Prominent information may greatly affect processing for those using a brand processing strategy. If prominent aspects of a stimulus are weighted more heavily in evaluations because they receive more attention during exposure, they might be used more by consumers who are focusing on the brand and its attributes-in other words, those processing for brand evaluation. Work in political science has found that people who are interested in politics and must decide for whom to vote are more likely than other people to be affected by the agenda-setting ability of mass media Prominence may direct attention to particular stimuli or to particular aspects of stimuli. Under some circumstances, prominent stimuli may affect evaluations by directing processing. Researchers in political science provide some evidence by examining the agenda-setting role of the media during elections. The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about. Numerous empirical studies demonstrate that readers perceptions of issue importance-as measured by self-report rating scales and open-ended elicitations reflect the emphasis these issues have received in the media to which they have been exposed. This does not mean that the media have affected voters priorities; perhaps people seek out media that concentrate on issues they feel are important. In addition to uncertainty about the direction of causal influence, we must also as-certain the strength of the link between issues people say are important and those they actually use to evaluate and elect candidates. Evidence shows that this link may be rather strong. If this is so, the agenda setting function of the media may provide an example of prominence affecting the degree to which some issues affect attitudes although, of course, media effects may also be due to direct arguments asserting that particular issues in news stories are the important ones. Customer satisfaction and retention are the key elements for the planning of the marketing in view of the fact that satisfaction does sway customers intention to re-patronage the restaurant. Therefore, marketers are supposed to look into the issues that would have an effect on customer satisfaction intensity. Besides, as customer prospect are altering over time and it is advised to determine the customer satisfaction and expectation on regular basis and grip complaints timely and effectively. An individuals evaluation task while viewing an advertisement may affect the pro-cessing that occurs during exposure. Brand and non brand tasks may involve different processes, but both may facilitate the use of prominent information. Prominent information may greatly affect processing for those using a brand processing strategy. If prominent aspects of a stimulus are weighted more heavily in evaluations because they receive more attention during exposure, they might be used more by consumers who are focusing on the brand and its attributes-in other words, those processing for brand evaluation. Work in political science has found that people who are interested in politics and must decide for whom to vote are more likely than other people to be affected by the agenda-setting ability of mass media. Prominent information may also greatly affect processing for those using a non brand processing strategy. Someone called upon to evaluate a brand after processing the ad with such a strategy may simply use whatever information about the advertised brand pops into his head first-that is, whatever is most easily recalled. In such a case, if prominence affects the attributes recalled, it may affect the criteria used to form attitudes as under low involvement, advertising influences brand choice by changing the salient attributes of the advertised brand. Self perceptions of familiarity may affect the individuals use of stored product class knowledge to interpret and integrate new brand information. This approach to familiarity is phenomenological; it focuses on the individuals subjective perceptions rather than on an objectively verifiable reality. There is evidence that self-perceptions of familiarity are not equivalent to objective measures of expertise or knowledge and that these self perceptions affect processing. Those who consider themselves familiar with a product (high subjective familiarity) may feel they have stored criteria for brand evaluation. They are aware of their stored product knowledge and may use it to interpret and integrate attribute information presented in an advertisement. In contrast, consumers who consider themselves unfamiliar with a product (low subjective familiarity) may feel they lack stored evaluative criteria. Such consumer may not attempt to use whatever knowledge they do have when presented with da ta about a new brand, feeling that it is useless to try to evaluate such information. Product specific attributes may seem confusing and meaningless; instead, they may use information in the advertisement that is not product-specific. In some cases, they may use information about attributes that are normally used to evaluate objects in a more general class of products to which the unfamiliar product belongs or is related. For example, a consumer who feels s/he doesnt know anything about shaving cream might use attributes appropriate for evaluating toiletries in general-such as scent-or those frequently found useful in evaluating products in general, such as price. In other cases s/he may, consciously or unconsciously, base brand attitude on evaluation of the advertisement itself. Thus self-perceptions of familiarity may affect the use of attribute information in an advertisement, and consumers who consider themselves unfamiliar with a product may be relatively unaffected by prominence. They may find all product-specific attributes too confusing and meaningless to use, regardless of accessibility. In contrast, consumers who consider themselves familiar with a product may be affected by prominence; they may find it easy to integrate a new piece of information with stored data and may have the confidence to do so. If prominence affects the accessibility of this information, it may affect its use by this group. A brands advertising can affect both the brand attributes recalled and those used for subsequent evaluations. In addition, advertisement induced recall due to an attention focusing tactic does not necessarily imply increased emphasis on that attribute during a subsequent brand evaluation. This suggests that it is useful for marketers to distinguish between processing which leads to recall and that which leads to attitude formation. The results imply that availability and use in attitude formation are not equivalent; elicitation procedures may not be appropriate techniques for obtaining the attributes used to evaluate brands. Advertisers must always be on the lookout for new techniques or approaches to adequately disseminate their messages, and brand placement is becoming a more widely used form of communication. This practice has been a standard in the film and television industry and is now making its mark in the video game industry. Traditional media are losing speed, and thus the use of non-traditional media as a form of communication is becoming much more interesting for advertisers. To compete, it is almost becoming a must for advertisers to be present in these new forms of media and entertainment. Young adults are watching television less and less. This phenomenon is due to the emergence of new technologies such as personal video recorders (PVR), leading people to watch their favourite TV channels off line. Once viewers have recorded these programs, they can watch them without any advertising breaks. The audience fragmentation resulting from the emergence of specialized channels has also complicate d the task of any advertisers attempting to reach mass numbers of people. Brand placement is defined as the inclusion, for promotion purposes, of a product, brand or company name within a film or television program content. The objective of this strategy is to increase brand recognition, and ultimately lead to a positive impact on purchase preference or intent. Most research on brand placement has focused on two major themes, namely placement effectiveness with four identified criteria that prominence, clarity, integration within scenario, location on screen. For years advertisers and consumer behaviour researchers have studied the effects of advertisement on recall, attitude, and other evaluations related to the ad and the brand. This includes cognitive responses, such as attention, recall, brand preference, and brand evaluation. These areas of research reflect the growing convictions of many advertisers that consumers liking and disliking of an ad can influence its effectiveness regarding attention, recall, brand evaluations, other cognitive related responses, and reactions. For decision alternatives, consumers consistently acquire product information on product brand attributes available to them. Such information in marketing communications is often conveyed either in numerical and verbal modes or both. Results from past studies on information mode showed that judgments of numerical estimates and verbal expressions vary considerably across subjects. Despite the increasing importance of numerical information in marketing, the marketing and advertising literature is scant on the effects of numerical attribute information on consumer evaluation of products. In addition, research on the relationship between presentation forms and information mode has not been reviewed in the past, despite the growing importance of numerical attribute information and the persuasive nature of vividness in advertising. Hence, the importance of vividness in terms of ad evaluation is of interest. Although the effects of presentation form, vividness, in terms of its persuasive communication has yielded mixed results, this research attempts to examine and discuss the role of vividness and the mode of information used with the inclusion of a moderator, consumer knowledge, as a determinant of how consumers respond to product advertisement. Consumers product knowledge is likely to affect product attribute information evaluations and recall in ways that are not entirely predictable. For example, consumers make judgments and decisions about products and services under conditions of uncertainty and only rarely complete information is available for all important features and benefits of a given product for them to make a decision. Studies have shown that the general interpretation of knowledge depends on individuals currently active knowledge structures. In the knowledge literature, accessibility of attribute information guides the interpretation of that information about the possible relationships among elements of product class. Furthermore, highly accessible attributes related to product information in the ad are likely to guide the encoding of the information. Different consumers use different skills and strategies to evaluate information implying that variables such as individual difference in knowledge may be important moderators in information processing. Individuals might differ in their responses to arguments the message contains, with some people analyzing and reacting to each argument and others reacting mainly to the communications overall point rather than to the argumentation. It is hardly surprising that reactions to communications are highly variable, because individuals differ in disposition and in prior experiences they have had in relationships to the attributes in the ads, product category, and overall presentation contexts in which influence is exerted. This can affect their attitude and responsiveness to advertising. Possibly, a reason attributed to this responsiveness is that a consumers decision-making approach is made via different patterns as they gain knowledge through experience with a product. The moderating effect s of consumer knowledge on processing and evaluation of numerical and verbal product attributes, and their interaction with vivid and non-vivid attribute information in advertising have also, until now, received little attention in the consumer behaviour literature. The effects of vividly presented information, for instance, vivid verbal or vivid numerical in an advertisement in general may be moderated by several individual and situational factors. Effects of advertising have been examined in the past, although, the influence of numerical versus verbal information content in advertising has not been examined. Studies in the area of information mode have primarily compared numerical information to verbal information with respect to information processing, memory, preference, and comparative judgments. Although studies have examined various aspects of advertising message content and format, none of the studies in the literature cited has made an attempt to measure subjects attitude toward to ad, and recall tested for all verbal and all numerical modes. On the other hand, some studies have compared the differences between visual and verbal information and their effects on brand attitude prior to the studies focusing on the comparison of verbal and numerical information. Other researchers have examined the differences between verbal message format and visual formats in terms of their effects on information processing, memory and ev aluations concerning the product. Advertisers are aware that consumers are exposed to numerous amounts of uncertain information and that they must also use this information for making decisions irrespective of just choosing a specific mode of communication. It is therefore reasonable to expect that preferences for a particular mode of information will influence how the information is encoded, retrieved, and then processed during decision-making situations. Online marketing is altering the way advertising is conducted and provides firms with a new lay of capabilities. This is able to be attributed to online advertising no longer seen as an optional component for business, other than a strategic platform. Therefore, businesses should aspire for online marketing to be an integral fraction of the business disadvantaged. The presence and accessibility to a web site is middle to online marketing. Though, as the number of companies exploiting online advertising and the use of explore engine marketing grows, it is flattering more hard for businesses to attract web site traffic The availability heuristic estimates frequency or probability by the ease with which instances or associations could be brought to mind. Some of this may be relatively easy to access, although other information is less accessible. This accessibility or ease of recall is termed as availability. If one can easily retrieve examples from memory, one infers that the event must be fairly frequent or common and/or well rehearsed. In order to make evaluations one needs to recall relevant information from memory. Information that is more available in memory will be utilized more in making the evaluation than information that is not readily available. In the areas of social cognition and evaluative processes the availability of information in memory has been seen to influence estimates and judgments. Accordingly the techniques devised for assessing efficiency tend to be leaning to the way TV advertising is thought to effort. But there is evidence of effective advertising in turn out media like newspaper, magazines, pamphlets , bills also, and this account summarises a small of it . There is to apply more extensively to bills or any print advertising campaigns the disciplines of monitoring next to pre-strong-minded objectives. This applies both to periodical campaigns and too mixed-media campaigns which characteristic magazines as a substantial fraction of the mix. Furthermore in certain compliments the techniques of monitoring and of pre-difficult need to be modified to the distinctive method magazines work, than simply adopting the assumptions applied to TV. The variation in the efficiency of encoding and retention of information will certainly depend on the combined efficiency of a large amount of different complex processes. However, when opportunities arise for recall of the processed information, the availability of the information is emphasized. How then, might such properties and memory efficiency be related to other cognitive abilities? Is comprehension or interpretational ability just one aspect of general learning and memory? The issue of what, if any, relation exists between expertise and the ability to comprehend information for recall and evaluation is a complex one, to which relatively little research attention has been given. The objective is to detect the ability to manipulate information, perceived relations, and extract it from the memory for judgment. Consumers are aware of their stored product knowledge and may use it to integrate a new piece of information and properly retrieve them to interpret attribute information presented in the ad. On the contrary, consumers who are novices may lack the stored evaluative standard, and they may not use whatever knowledge they have when presented with a new piece of information about the product. Th ey may feel it is useless to exert any kind of effort to process and evaluate the new information. Therefore novices use ad specific cues that are not product attribute oriented information because product attribute information may seem confusing and meaningless to them Customer satisfaction is defined as the consumers fulfillment response. Customer satisfaction leads to the customer loyalty so it is necessary to s

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Diagnosis Case Study Essay -- Health Care

Identify possible nursing diagnoses that Karen may have and provide a rationale for your choice: A nursing diagnosis that would be attributed to the patient, Karen in the case study would be risk of deficient fluid volume. Karen’s slightly elevated pulse and respirations and additionally the assessment findings of mild oedema and blister formation show that there is a movement of body fluid into the second and third interstitial spacing. Brown and Edwards (2008) states this is caused by increased capillary permeability. Water, sodium and plasma protein move into the intestinal spacing and surrounding tissue. Furthermore Karen states that she has a headache, feels nauseas and chilled after being over exposed to the sun. Karen has a temperature of 38.5 and an abundant of redness to her body surface after prolonged exposure. Over exposure to ultra violet rays can cause thermal burns which leads to increased fluid loss via evaporation from the injured skin. Assessing the fluid loss, perfusion and oxygenation status, and evaluating the need for fluid and electrolyte replacem ent that is lost, through fluid and protein shifts can aid in the restoration of intravascular volume. Another expected nursing diagnosis is acute pain. The sudden onset of pain is a result of the nociceptive tissue damage and the nursing treatment required for the injury tissue. Careful assessment of the wound and surrounding tissue can help determine the level of injury sustained. The pain is variable and cannot be reliably predicted by clinical assessment of the patient. ‘Burn patients experience two kinds of pain continuous background pain, which occurs during the course of the day and night. Secondly, a treatment induced pain which is related to ambulation,... ...dical- surgical nursing, Assessment and management of clinical problems, 2nd edn, Elsevier Australia, Chatswood. Funnell, R, Koutoukidis, G & Lawrence, K (2009) Tabbner’s nursing care, 5th edn, Elsevier, Chatswood. Greenfield, E (2010) The pivotal role of nursing personnel in burn care, Indian Journal of plastic surgery Vol. 43, No. 3, pp.94-100, Viewed online 17th March 2010.;year=2010;volume=43;issue=3;spage=94;epage=100;aulast=Greenfield. Patterson, R, Hoflund, H, Espey, K & Sharar, S(n.d.)Pain management, Pain Control - The International society for burn injuries, Viewed online 17th March 2012 Sholtis-Bunner, L, Smeltzer, S, Bare, B Hinkle, J, Cheever, K 2009, Brunner and Suddarth's Textbook of Medical Surgical Nursing, 12thedn, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,