Friday, February 7, 2020

Max Weber Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Max Weber - Research Paper Example Weber was highly inspired by German idealism and specifically by neo-Kantianism. The most significant influence of neo-Kantianism thought on Weber was the idea that reality is basically disorganized and perplexing, with all the balanced order coming from the way in which the individual mind focuses its attention on particular areas of reality and arranges the perceptions that come as an output. Social Action Max Weber viewed sociology as a science of social action. His early focus in sociology revolved around subjective meanings that individuals attach to the actions that they take and their interpretations of concepts within a particular social context (Elwell, n.d.). According to this, Weber categorizes action in four different ways. The following kinds of action can be taken. Zweckrational (the means used to achieve the required goal are rationally chosen). Wertrational (the goal one is trying to achieve might not be rational, but rational ways are used to attain it). Affective ac tion is rooted in the emotional state of an individual instead of rational thinking. Traditional action is the action that is guided or regulated by customs, habits, or traditions. According to Weber, there are many factors in action behind human behavior, and he believed that most of the behavior exercised by individuals is a mix of the above mentioned actions. He advocated that a distinctive shift in the motivation of individual behavior is a distinguishing feature of a modern society (Elwell, n.d.). Major part of his work investigates the factors that gave birth to the idea of rationalization in the western society. Weber believes that social action is an illustration of the use of an ideal type. An ideal type provides the fundamental method for comparative and historical study (Elwell, n.d.). It also helps the researcher when he or she is studying a specific area of the society. This ideal type cannot be a real phenomenon; it is a classic hypothetical example against which the r eality could be compared (Barnard, Burgess, & Kirby, 2004). Theory of Rationalization According to Weber, rationalization refers to the increasing human control over the social environment. As per this theory, there are three basic points that are individual cost-benefit analysis, the bureaucratic arrangement of organization, and understanding of reality without searching for explanations in mystery, magic, or supernatural beliefs (Allan, 2005). The process of rational thought is the sensible application of knowledge to arrive at a preferred outcome. It leads to competence, cooperation, efficiency, and power over both the natural and the social surroundings (Elwell, n.d.). It also makes individuals come out as free, as he or she breaks the net of traditional thoughts and illogical belief systems. In his later works on bureaucracy, Weber discusses rationalization in detail. Weber advocates that bureaucracies are goal-defined organizations devised according to rational factors in orde r to effectively achieve their goals (Elwell, n.d.). The bureaucratic cooperation of the actions of numerous people has become the main structural characteristic of modern societies. As regards the concept of rationalization, Weber stayed doubtful. He saw it as a two-sided phenomenon. On the

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Oruro Mask Dance Essay Example for Free

The Oruro Mask Dance Essay Culture is usually expressed through different mediums. Values, beliefs, and aspirations of a particular group of people are imbibed in culture. Thus, in order for these cultural traits to be represented in what social scientists call â€Å"the world of cultural relativism†, people express it through rituals, dances, and songs. Generally, these mediums are called â€Å"festivals. † Here in Bolivia, specifically, in Oruro, Santa Cruz, the Oruro Devil Dance is a famous festival. Eight days before the Ash Wednesday, people gather around the town’s plaza to perform a beautiful devil dance or diablada in Spanish (Hamre 1). The devil dance is a commemoration of our ancestors prior to the coming of the Spaniards; a sort of tribute to the dead. The escolas de samba chooses a new theme each year. These themes have one direction: they ought to relive the days of our ancestors. For one, our commemoration of the dead is a symbolic gesture of respect and magnanimity to the dead. Also, we recognize the efforts made by our ancestors in fighting foreigners. Their blood was spilled in the country in order to protect it from invaders. Thus, even with the prohibition of Spanish colonial officials from celebrating this dance, our forefathers danced it in the mountains, far from the contours of civilization. As one may note, diablada survived almost unchanged for many centuries. We, the Bolivians, are also proud of the colorful features of the mask dance. Hundreds of devils in monstrous costumes can be seen in the streets of the town. Some masks are heavy and to an American viewer â€Å"scary. † Other masks have bulging eyes and long hairs, just like the characteristics of the devil in Hollywood movies. I especially like devil masks wearing sparkling breastplates and golden spurs. Some masks are really light, connotative of the â€Å"spiritual origin† of devils. The devil dance is supplemented by a pacifying, rhythmic music from brass bands, pipers, and drummers. The colorful image of the festival as well as its solemn dedication to our ancestors makes it my favorite holiday here in Bolivia. Then the noise in the festival becomes loud and frenzied. Out of the devil dancers comes China Supay (Hamre 1). She is the devil’s wife who performs a seductive dance to attract the Archangel Michael. By the way, this dance was modified by the Spaniards to suit the predominant religion of Bolivia (Roman Catholicism). Then, members of workers’ unions carry small symbols of their union. This is done to show their support for the festival. Dancers in Inca costumes, with headdresses and symbols of the sun and moon on their chests, dance with the dancers dressed as black slaves. These slaves were imported to Bolivia by the Spaniards from West Africa to work in silver mines (operated by the colonial government). Then, family members appear. They are led by matriarchs dressed in yellow. The man of the household appears first (in red dress); then the daughters (in green dress). After which, the families go to the football stadium. Here the next celebrations take place. In the stadium, two plays are conducted (Hamre 1). The first play is about the conquest of Bolivia by the Spanish conquistadores. The second is about the victory of the Archangel Michael against the devil and the Seven Deadly Sins. Michael’s flaming sword is emphasized as the sword of light bound to defeat evil for all eternity. Then, the singing of the song of the Patron Saint of the Miners becomes the next event. They are also expressed in dance using a Quecha hymn. The purpose of the plays is very clear. The plays are a protest to the abuse of Spanish officials and clergy during colonial Bolivia. Although the festival is mixed with Christian tales and concepts, it still adheres to the pre-colonial ceremony of giving gratitude to the dead and the mother earth Pachamama (Hamre 1). The struggle of good and evil are emphasized and made clear through the actions of early Catholic priests pacifying an â€Å"already civilized† nation. Thus, it can be said that the mask festival, specifically the devil dance, is a characterization of our nation’s history. Such history is, of course, characterized by the struggle of good (justice) and evil (injustice by colonizers). The triumph of good signifies the break of our country from the bonds of colonialism, and its entrance to a new hope (the hope that the good will reign in the future). For days, the celebration of the carnival continues. The diablada dancers break into smaller group. Usually, huge bonfires are set to characterize the spiritual and physical unity of the country. Processions are then made and the church becomes a refuge for the homeless. Then, men from different families jointly consume large amounts of Bolivian beer and the very potent chicha (Hamre 1). Chicha is derived from fermented cereals and corn and liquefied in high temperature areas. Usually as the celebration ends, many people sleep in doorways. Others fall (because of drunkenness) sleep in the town’s plaza. The mask festival, most especially the devil dance, is my favorite festival among the festivals in both Bolivia and the United States. One reason is the character of the festival’s message. The redemption of humanity (a Christian concept) from evil is likened to the separation of Bolivia from Spanish rule. This festival presents the history of our country as it both experienced oppression and hope. My next reason has something to do with culture. Among all the festivals celebrated in our country, the mask dance is the most comprehensive; that is, it establishes the full personality of Bolivia. Note that in my description, the mask festival does not focus on one character of a Bolivian; rather it draws from past historical experiences to highlight the full character of a Bolivian. For example, Bolivians are known for being hospitable and diplomatic. This is shown in the mixed dance of the devil dancers with the Incas (a sign of friendship). This festival is really the life and character of my country, Bolivia. Works Cited Devil Dance. (2007). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 30 October 2007 from http://www. britannica. com/eb/article-77638/Native-American-arts (accessed). Hamre, Bonnie. (2007). Oruros Devil Dance is unforgettable. 30 October 2007 from http://gosouthamerica. about. com/cs/southamerica/a/Carnaval_3. htm (accessed). Oruro Carnival. (2007). New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. 30 October 2007 from http://www. carnavalexhibit. org/bolivia. php (accessed).

Monday, January 20, 2020

Mother-daughter Relations and Clash of Cultures in Amy Tans The Joy Lu

     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Amy Tan is an American Born Chinese, daughter of immigrants, and her family shares many features with the families depicted in her novels. Tan's novels offer some glimpses of life in China while developing the themes of mother-daughter relations, cultural adaptation and "women with a past".   Tan’s novels share many themes and elements, but this paper will focus mainly on two episodes of the novel The Joy Luck Club: "The Joy Luck Club" and "Waiting Between the Trees"; and will make references to The Kitchen's God Wife and The Hundred Secret Senses. In the first place, mother-daughter relations between Chinese mothers and ABC daughters are not easy ones in Tan's novels. They are always problematic. Mothers want to bring up their children according to the Chinese ways, whereas daughters want to live their own life according to the "American Way of Life", despising Chinese habits and traditions, sometimes to the extent of being ashamed of their origins. Amy Tan herself confessed that, as a child, she used to put "a clothespin on her nose hoping to make it pert, to change its Asian shape."    In "Waiting Between the Trees," Lena St. Clair sees her mother, Ying-Ying as a weak-minded woman who needs constant help. This impression is aroused by Ying- Ying's traditional Chinese female education. In Ying- Ying's times, women used to be educated to be obedient, to honor one's parents, one's husband and to try to please him and his family. This education is based on Confucius's teachings: during her life a woman has to follow three persons during her whole life: at home, she has to follow her father; married, she has to follow her husband; and when her husband dies, she has to follow her son. Therefore a woman is not supp... ...hers and daughters which have their source in a clash of cultures. In her novels, she reflects Chinese history, traditions, education and superstition, together with may experiences takes from her family history, all of which provides a convincing representation directly inspired in the real everyday life of the Chinese colony in the United States.    Works Cited Tan, Amy (1989). The Joy Luck Club. New York: Ivy Books. -- (1991). The Kitchen God's Wife. New York: Ivy Books. -- (1995). The Hundred Secret Senses. New York: Ivy Books. Ng, Mei (1998). Eating Chinese Food Naked. Harmondsworth: Penguin.    Internet: Liu, Ping (1997). Adjusting to a New Society: A Study of Educated Chinese Women: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~tdo/ea/chineseWomen.html Interview with Amy Tan: The Joy Luck Club Lady: http://detnews.com/menu/stories/23098.htm    Mother-daughter Relations and Clash of Cultures in Amy Tan's The Joy Lu      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Amy Tan is an American Born Chinese, daughter of immigrants, and her family shares many features with the families depicted in her novels. Tan's novels offer some glimpses of life in China while developing the themes of mother-daughter relations, cultural adaptation and "women with a past".   Tan’s novels share many themes and elements, but this paper will focus mainly on two episodes of the novel The Joy Luck Club: "The Joy Luck Club" and "Waiting Between the Trees"; and will make references to The Kitchen's God Wife and The Hundred Secret Senses. In the first place, mother-daughter relations between Chinese mothers and ABC daughters are not easy ones in Tan's novels. They are always problematic. Mothers want to bring up their children according to the Chinese ways, whereas daughters want to live their own life according to the "American Way of Life", despising Chinese habits and traditions, sometimes to the extent of being ashamed of their origins. Amy Tan herself confessed that, as a child, she used to put "a clothespin on her nose hoping to make it pert, to change its Asian shape."    In "Waiting Between the Trees," Lena St. Clair sees her mother, Ying-Ying as a weak-minded woman who needs constant help. This impression is aroused by Ying- Ying's traditional Chinese female education. In Ying- Ying's times, women used to be educated to be obedient, to honor one's parents, one's husband and to try to please him and his family. This education is based on Confucius's teachings: during her life a woman has to follow three persons during her whole life: at home, she has to follow her father; married, she has to follow her husband; and when her husband dies, she has to follow her son. Therefore a woman is not supp... ...hers and daughters which have their source in a clash of cultures. In her novels, she reflects Chinese history, traditions, education and superstition, together with may experiences takes from her family history, all of which provides a convincing representation directly inspired in the real everyday life of the Chinese colony in the United States.    Works Cited Tan, Amy (1989). The Joy Luck Club. New York: Ivy Books. -- (1991). The Kitchen God's Wife. New York: Ivy Books. -- (1995). The Hundred Secret Senses. New York: Ivy Books. Ng, Mei (1998). Eating Chinese Food Naked. Harmondsworth: Penguin.    Internet: Liu, Ping (1997). Adjusting to a New Society: A Study of Educated Chinese Women: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~tdo/ea/chineseWomen.html Interview with Amy Tan: The Joy Luck Club Lady: http://detnews.com/menu/stories/23098.htm   

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Interpreting the First Amendment of the Constitution Essay

The notion of being free to choose whatever religion a citizen wants to posses is notoriously known to be a liberty dictated by the first amendment. â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,† (A-18 Brinkley) are the famous words of the constitution. Yet, this same law also states that the legislative branch of the U. S. government does not have the authority to favor one religion over the other. In fact, it dictates that the government must remain secular when it comes to the affairs of religion as it cannot respect any one particular religion over another. Thus, there can never be a national religion, an American version of the Anglican Church, as it would hinder the government from preserving the freedom to choose between religions. The other liberties guaranteed by this amendment were the rights of speech, the press, â€Å"or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and petition the Government for a redress of grievances† (A-18 Brinkley). These are all liberties that allow for the citizens of the nation to protest the government. Civilians can protest through their speech, which may hold accusatory claims against the government, in public areas. Americans are allowed the right to publish grievances in the press, free of censorship from a legislative body, as well. These are liberties that allow for organizations to spread information and knowledge over any form of tyranny they may feel the government bestows onto the population. These are also lubricating actions that more easily allow for assemblies to form and confront the government over such issues. Really, the amendment is a formula for allowing the civilian populous to restrain the authority of the government.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Adam Smith And His Influence On American Society Essay

Introduction Since the early days of the United States, the Founding Fathers and other brilliant minds sought ways to understand and make sense of the inner workings of society and the economic market. Out of the many thinkers and developers of that time period, perhaps none made so great an impact on American society as the Scottish contemporary philosopher and political economist, Adam Smith—who is most known for his influential work, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, By the early nineteenth century, other streams of economic theory emerged from various individuals who were also influenced by the ideas of Smith. Some of these individuals included David Ricardo, Karl Marx and later John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman—each of whom contributed their own ideas on economic activity. However, it was Smith’s ideas on capitalism and his laissez-faire approach to free markets that have transcended other economic theories and continue to impact Amer ican economic thought to this day. Early Life Much more is known about Adam Smith’s thoughts and ideas than about his personal life. Smith was born in a small village in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. Although his birthdate is unknown, Smith was baptized on June 5, 1723, which is the earliest date most historians cite for his humble beginnings. He was the son of Adam Smith, a comptroller in the small fishing village with a population of about 1,500 people. At the age of fourteen, he attended the University ofShow MoreRelatedThe Implications to the Pursuit of Prosperity1770 Words   |  7 Pagesinsurrections ever to rock western society. The Industrial Revolution, namely, brought industrialization to new heights while the American and the French Revolutions combatted monarchy successfully establishing democratic governments. These developmental episodes rejected the status-quo giving rise to a new modern capitalistic society the world knows well in this present age. However, this new social environment in the late 1700s presented uncharted maps for the citizens of society and newly formed governmentsRead More Abigail Adams and How She Shaped the Role of Women in American History1677 Words   |  7 Pagesand the mother to the sixth American president, who was this woman? She was Abigail Adams. Abigail Adams life didn’t acquire meaning solely from knowing and being around these two great men however, Adams was eminently worth knowing as an individual herself. Throughout the ages, women have always been involved in war but Abigail Adams brought a new concept to women and war with her involvement in the early colonial years and the American Revolution. Abigail Adams did many things in her lifetimeRead MoreAbigail Adams Essays705 Words   |  3 PagesAbigail Adams Abigail Adams was and still is a hero and idle for many women in the United States. As the wife of John Adams, Abigail used her position to bring forth her own strong federalist and strong feminist views. Mrs. Adams was one of the earliest feminists and will always influence todays women. Abigail Adams was born Abigail Smith in 1744 at Weymouth, Massachusetts. She was a descendent of the Qunicys, a very prestigious family in the colonies, on her mothers side. 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Some of the main principles of liberalism that built the United States came from famous thinkers: Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, and Adam Smith. Each of these men believed individual liberty was at the heart of liberalism. The three main principles of liberalism that play a major role in its function are equal rights, individualism, and capitalismRead MoreAbigail Adams : A Revolutionary Woman1382 Words   |  6 PagesAbigail Adams: A Revolutionary Woman. Third ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Charles W. Akers’ Abigail Adams: A Revolutionary Woman is written about Abigail Adams whom is the wife to the second president of the United States, John Adams. Abigail begins by describing the role of women during the colonial time when the US only consisted of the 13 colonies. Starting with her birth on November 11, 1744 to her death on October 28, 1818 Abigail describes the role she played as an American WomanRead MoreAbigail Adams’ Inspiring Rebellion for Women’s Rights Essay1425 Words   |  6 PagesBorn on November 11, 1744, Abigail Smith entered the world in the Massachusetts colony during troublesome time of England rule that was destined to end one day.1 Her family was well respected in the town of Weymouth, where she was born. Her father, William Smith, was a Congregational minister and her mother, Elizabeth Quincy, hailed from a prominent family in the colony.2 Abigail spent her time at her grandmother’s house where she was schooled in English, French, and history, meanwhile, gaining aRead MoreThe American Ethos And The Contribution By Franklin1372 Words   |  6 Pagesinstrumental through his writings in creating the American ethos in his work on Advice to a Young Tradesman and subsequently played a part a seminal part in the creation of modern capitalism and globalism through his writing on The Way to Wealth. The concepts introduced in the article are summarized and the concept of the American ethos and the contribution by Franklin to modern capitalism are analyzed and critiqued. The first major concept introduced by Reinsert is that Franklin, in his Advice to a Young

Friday, December 27, 2019

Persuasive Speech Essay - 1164 Words

Persuasive Speech WHY BOTHER TO VOTE Introduction: Ever since this country was established citizens have fought for a right that often is not exercised by today’s youth; along with many others. This right that I speak of is the right to vote. In the beginning one had to be a white male landowner in order to receive this right. However through the years and many trying battles all citizens of the US that are 18 years and older have earned this right. Voting is something that many of us take for granted and do not realize the great importance of this right and our duty to do so. Your votes do effect not only the national elections but every election you choose to cast a vote in; such as school elections, along with the people that†¦show more content†¦iii. However, when state legislators opened suffrage allowing all white males to vote, at the same time they closed the door that previously allowed white woman of great economic status t o vote were closed iv. Discrimination towards blacks also kept them from voting in the early stages of this new democracy, and again doors that were once open were slammed shut for people of color. v. Through protesting and addition of the 15th, 19th, 24th, and the 26th amendment the doors for all American citizens were open to cast their ballots II. What your vote does and how it affects every aspect of our lives is really very simple to do, but rather quite important. A. Voting is an important part of our democratic process. It is a chance, for every eligible person to influence the policies that affect our lives on a daily basis. i. With only a simple mark on a ballot, voting lets us decide who our representatives will be and what our future will look like. ii. We also vote on school mileages, to decide whether or not to increase our property taxes, to support programs within our local schools. iii. These programs may include bussing issues, sporting events, the remodeling of a school, orShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Speech : Automatic Speech Recognition1610 Words   |  7 PagesAutomatic speech recognition is a tool that allows computers to translate spoken language into written text. This technology can assist users in interpreting and using audio information for applications such as transcribing interviews, human-computer interactions, and many more. Speech recognition is an application the Ministry of Justice has expressed great interest in. They wish to automate the conversion of voice recordings of inmate phone conversations to text, which can then be analyzed forRead MorePersuasive Essay On Hate Speech1612 Words   |  7 Pages In the name of free speech, hate speech should not be tolerated. Hate speech has devastating effects on the people and communities it is targeted at. Left unchecked hate speech can lead to harmful and violent e ffects. Over the past few years, the effects of hate speech used on women, homosexuals, ethnic groups and religious minorities have become more and more apparent. Hate speech can be very divisive in many of the situations it is used, depending on who interprets the expression can vary howRead MorePersuasive Essay On Freedom Of Speech1083 Words   |  5 PagesFreedom of Speech When the rules and doctrines of our country were first being assembled, the right minded individuals with the power of legislature took a page from John Locke and affirmed that Americans are endowed with a list of natural rights upon birth. The first and arguably most important notch on that list if the frequently used and abused First Amendment, our freedom of Speech. The First Amendment solemnly declares that Congress is incapable of passing any legislation which inhibits a citizen’sRead MoreSpeech : The Persuasive Speech761 Words   |  4 PagesDuring the persuasive speech I was really nervous. I know that this is the third presentation that I had to do, but I really had a hard time talking in front of everyone. That was very weird for me because I thought that I would already be used to speaking in front of the class since I’m always talking in class and participating. In my opinion, I feel that I did more wrong than right during this presentation. I know for a fa ct that I kept repeating myself. The reason for that was because I was reallyRead MorePersuasive Speech895 Words   |  4 PagesTo be Persuasive we must be Believable An American literary theorist and novelist, Kenneth Burke, once said, â€Å"Wherever there is persuasion, there is rhetoric, and wherever there is rhetoric, there is meaning.† (Burke) Barack Obama, Martin Luther King Jr. and Fannie Lou Hamer all delivered powerful persuasive speeches that will go down in history. The use of these motivational individuals’ language and persuasion played a pivotal role within the civil rights movement, the movement that achieved theRead MorePersuasive Speech1641 Words   |  7 Pagesto Public Speaking 14 November 2010 Persuasive Speech Reduce Landfill Waste by Reduce, Reuse and Recycling and the financial benefits I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Over half of the waste that ends up in the landfill does not belong there because it could have been recycled or reused. B. Credibility Statement: Not only do I religiously practice reducing, reusing, and recycling, but I have done a great deal of research for this speech, also research for a recycling projectRead MorePersuasive Speech1777 Words   |  8 PagesPersuasive speech outline purpose: To persuade my audience to donate blood through the American Red Cross. Introduction: 1. Did you know that blood donated to the American Red Cross saves XXX lives per year? 2. People should give blood because it is easy and though there might be a little pain involved it is worth it because it saves so many lives and you get great snacks. Body: I. Giving blood is easy a. It only takes about an hour b. You just lay back and let the nurses do the work c. ItRead MorePersuasive Speech971 Words   |  4 PagesStephanie Ethington SPE 103-02 Speech Outline Draft 04/20/12 Persuasive Speech Outline Topic: Blood Donation Purpose: To persuade my peers of the need for blood donations. Thesis: The need for blood donors is crucial it could save a life of someone you know or your own. Introduction: A. Imagine you or someone you know needed blood to save their life. For example, if you were born with a heart defect and required a transfusion for a chance at life. 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Dangerous criminals are walking the streets and crime is a way of life to many Americans. In America, crime does pay because our nations prison system

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Auditor Responsibility And Its Effects On All Material...

In general, auditor responsibility is to express opinion on whether the financial statements are free of material misstatements and presented truth and fairness in all material respect. Auditor will first understand of the entity and its environment, and continue with the planning and perform risk assessment procedure, and also all necessary audit procedure to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence before concludes the audit opinion. ISA 315 Identifying and assessing the risk of material misstatement through understanding the entity and its environment stated that ‘Obtaining an understanding of the entity and its environment, including the entity’s internal control (referred to hereafter as an ‘understanding of the entity’), is a continuous, dynamic process of gathering, updating and analysing information throughout the audit. The understanding establishes a frame of reference within which the auditor plans the audit and exercises professional judgment throughout the audit.’[1] PCAOB Standard AU319 stated that: â€Å"A sufficient understanding of internal control is to be obtained to plan the audit and to determine the nature, timing and extent of tests to be performed.† [2] A clear understanding of client’s internal control assists auditor to determine which areas are potential of material misstatements and the related audit procedures to be taken. Auditor has to evaluate management assertions, understand the design and flow of internal control, and perform test of control toShow MoreRelatedSummary of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 20021383 Words   |  6 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was passed by Congress in 2002 (www.sarbanesoxley. com). The Act, along with subsequent regulations adopted in 2003 and 2004, affected the responsibilities of auditors, boards of directors, and corporate managers with respect to financial reporting. Also, the act established the Public Companies Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) that is now responsible for oversight of financial statement audits of publicly-traded corporations and the establishment of auditing Read MoreThe North Face, Inc Case Essays665 Words   |  3 PagesInc 1 Auditors should not insist that their clients accept all proposed audit adjustments even those that have an â€Å"immaterial† effect on the given set of financial statements. Because â€Å"immaterial† effect on the financial statements will not affect the users’ decisions. Therefore, auditors have to confirm if the effects on the financial statements are really â€Å"immaterial†. If there are really â€Å"immaterial†, sometimes the auditor would be forced by the clients to ignore it. So the auditor should giveRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act ( Act ) Essay1660 Words   |  7 PagesOxley. It mandates strict reforms to improve financial disclosures from corporations and prevent accounting fraud. The Sarbanes Oxley Act is arranged into eleven titles. They are Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), Auditor Independence, Corporate Responsibility, Enhanced Financial Disclosures, Analyst Conflicts of Interest, Commission Resources and Authority, White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement, Corporate Tax Returns, and Corporate Fraud Accountability. These titles provide the descriptionRead MoreQuestions And Research Question Questions1160 Words   |  5 PagesResearch Question 15-48 Who Signs Who Receives Required/Optional When Sent Purpose a) Client s Lawyers Auditor Required By the completion of the audit Obtain corroborative verification relating to contingent liabilities b) CEO CFO Auditor Required By the completion of the audit Remind management regarding reporting responsibilities and get written responses to prior inquiries c) Auditor Client Optional After audit Provide management with productive suggestions on way to develop their organizationRead MoreHomework Assignment Week 11195 Words   |  5 Pagesincludes a requirement that (3) Due professional care be exercised by the auditor D. What is the general character of the  three generally accepted auditing standards classified as standards of field work? 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